Sunday, August 23, 2020
11th Grade Unit 4 Self-Reliance, Concord Hymn, and The Snowstorm by Ralph Waldo Emerson Essay Example
eleventh Grade Unit 4: Self-Reliance, Concord Hymn, and The Snowstorm by Ralph Waldo Emerson Paper Confidence In this exposition, Emerson admonishes perusers to maintain a strategic distance from aimlessly fitting in with the thoughts and conduct directed by society or friends. Rather, he encourages individuals to think autonomously. Accord Hymn In this sonnet, Emerson adulates the courage of the minutemen who battled at Lexington and Concord. The sonnet passes on the message that individuals who make incredible penances for honorable motivations, for example, opportunity will never be overlooked. The Snowstorm In this sonnet, Emerson builds up an all-inclusive illustration wherein he looks at natures power during a blizzard to a modeler creating a structure. The sonnet passes on the message that nature is equipped for making works of astonishing excellence that resemble or outperform those created by people.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Extraordinary Gatsby - Seeking the Unattainable Dream What is the American Dream? America has developed from a baby, battling, country to turn into a politically influential nation through its extraordinary financial development. Driven by the fundamentals of autonomy, confidence, and opportunity, Americans have had the chance to seek after monetary achievement. To many, this is the American Dream; to have opportunity and the chance to seek after budgetary opportunity. To other people, for example, Gatsby, Walter, and Jake, the American dream is satisfaction. They are driven by their fantasies, looking for what they accept will fulfill them. Gatsby and Jake look for satisfaction through affection while Walter looks for joy through cash. The conviction that joy, ideal world, and peacefulness are inside their grips drives these characters. However the negligible actuality that their fantasies are out of reach makes them imperfect. Without dreams, Gatsby, Walter, and Jake lose their feeling of direction throughout everyday life. In this wa y the quest for the American dream is a mystery. Accomplishing it is unthinkable, however without it, life will lose its motivation. Gatsby, Walter, and Jake are portrayals of the American dream in light of the fact that the affection and bliss they look for are difficult to get. The introduction of the craving for the bliss and love of the American dream in Gatsby happened when he met a man named Dan Cody. After his sicken with school, Gatsby looked for another life. He found the guarantee of his acclaim and fortune in Dan Cody's yacht. To youthful Gatz, laying on his paddles and gazing toward the railed deck, that yacht spoke to all the magnificence and charm on the planet (Fitzgerald 106). When he obtained the skiff that shipped him to the yacht, Gatsby was no longer James Gatz, he had became Gatsby, inst... ... instruction and cash don't really prompt joy. Be that as it may, energized fiscal interest, Fitzgerald appears, goes inseparably with individual nervousness: under the strain of rivalry, public activity has gotten a mode of anxiety (Fitter 8). The understudies of Mission ought to follow Walter's model and understand that their fantasy is distorted and imperfect. They have to develop and understand that there are numerous traps and issues that are made by cash, and that they can discover satisfaction through different things other than cash, for example, family, religion, and love. Gatsby, Walter, and Jake are a portrayal of the American dream in light of the fact that the affection and satisfaction they look for is difficult to acquire. Regardless of the inconceivability, individuals need a fantasy so as to have a reason throughout everyday life. Without dreams life will get capricious, evaporating like a raisin in the sun. gatdream F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby - Seeking the Unattain Extraordinary Gatsby - Seeking the Unattainable Dream What is the American Dream? America has developed from a newborn child, battling, country to turn into a politically influential nation through its exceptional monetary development. Driven by the principles of autonomy, independence, and opportunity, Americans have had the chance to seek after monetary achievement. To many, this is the American Dream; to have opportunity and the chance to seek after budgetary opportunity. To other people, for example, Gatsby, Walter, and Jake, the American dream is joy. They are driven by their fantasies, looking for what they accept will fulfill them. Gatsby and Jake look for bliss through affection while Walter looks for joy through cash. The conviction that rapture, ideal world, and serenity are inside their grips drives these characters. However the unimportant reality that their fantasies are out of reach makes them defective. Without dreams, Gatsby, Walter, and Jake lose their feeling of direction throughout everyday life. Along these lines the quest for the American dream is a Catch 22. Accomplishing it is unimaginable, however without it, life will lose its motivation. Gatsby, Walter, and Jake are portrayals of the American dream in light of the fact that the affection and satisfaction they look for are difficult to acquire. The introduction of the craving for the satisfaction and love of the American dream in Gatsby happened when he met a man named Dan Cody. After his disturb with school, Gatsby looked for another life. He found the guarantee of his popularity and fortune in Dan Cody's yacht. To youthful Gatz, laying on his paddles and gazing toward the railed deck, that yacht spoke to all the magnificence and charm on the planet (Fitzgerald 106). When he obtained the paddle boat that moved him to the yacht, Gatsby was no longer James Gatz, he had became Gatsby, inst... ... training and cash don't really prompt joy. In any case, energized money related interest, Fitzgerald appears, goes connected at the hip with individual tension: under the strain of rivalry, public activity has gotten a vehicle of disquiet (Fitter 8). The understudies of Mission ought to follow Walter's model and understand that their fantasy is misrepresented and defective. They have to develop and understand that there are numerous traps and issues that are made by cash, and that they can discover satisfaction through different things other than cash, for example, family, religion, and love. Gatsby, Walter, and Jake are a portrayal of the American dream on the grounds that the adoration and satisfaction they look for is difficult to acquire. In spite of the difficulty, individuals need a fantasy so as to have a reason throughout everyday life. Without dreams life will get random, evaporating like a raisin in the sun.
Thursday, July 9, 2020
Cause and effect relationship between government expenditure and revenue collection - Free Essay Example
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview The relationship between government revenue and expenditure is a very important topic and has been an essential issue for many economists and policy makers as it represents budget deficit, government expenditure Plans and taxation structure of a country. Since the main objective of every government is to improve economic growth with low debt levels, better education system, development of infrastructure and job opportunities better fiscal policy is needed to achieve these goals. From a short term perspective fiscal policy is said to be expansionary when government expenditures exceeds the total revenue and the resulting deficit is then financed by the government, However if these expenditures contributes in economic growth then there is a long term relationship exist between government expenditure and economic growth. In addition different studies indicate that the determination of Economic growth is depended on tax levels. Whereas many believe that the most significant factor that contributes in economic growth is tax level as the collection for development purposes of most developed and developing countries depend on tax revenue. 1.2 Research Problem In Pakistan the level of budget deficits have consistently increasing from 2005 which is then financed by the government through external and domestic borrowing resulting in a higher debt levels due to high interest cost associated with it and leads to more future tax expectations. Thus the financing by the government for the compensation of deficit is an important variable, several studies have put light on the outcome of fiscal deficit but very few have tried to find the reasons and causes of these deficits which is why the nexus between government revenue and expenditure is still an unsolved issue. Therefore the main purpose of this research is to study the causal relationship between government revenue and expenditure. 1.3 Hypotheses H1: Tax Revenue causes Government Expenditure. H2: Government Expenditure causes Tax Revenue. H3: Tax Revenue and Government Expenditure bidirectionally cause to each other. 1.4 Outline of the Study The research studies the causal relationship between government expenditure and tax revenue to see the reasons for the consistent budget deficits in Pakistan from many years. In addition time series analyses have been done to forecast the trend of government expenditure and revenue based on the leading variable. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Nanthakumar and Taha (2007) have found a stable relationship between spending and revenue. Furthermore there is a long-term impact exist expenditures that enter as input into the production function and those that enter as inputs in investment technologies. Koch, Schoeman, and Tonder (2005) found that there is an association between burden of taxes and economic growth according to the findings based on the data of 1960-2002 if tax burden decreases economic growth increases significantly. Friedman (1982) explains expenditure of the government depends on total revenue because as taxes increases expenditure increases by which deficit remains at the same level, therefore the level of fiscal deficit cannot be reduced by increasing taxes. Buchanan and Wagner (1977) on the other hand have presented an alternative hypothesis that increase in taxes does not lead towards low expenditures because taxes creates higher price of goods for the public due to high interest cost associated with it Buchanan and Wagner suggest that in order to restore deficit government should limit its financing ability. Sobhee (2004) tested the causality from tax to expenditure and from expenditure to taxes by using the data of public finance and founded that for the utilization of public expenditure in a small economy government first accommodate the necessary funds, therefore to avoid the situation of fiscal deficit the government must carefully monitor and control its spending programs. Fasano and Wang (2002) in a research on GCC countries founded that the primary Source of revenue is oil and due to the economic fluctuations medium-term expenditure strategy should be adopted according to which expenditure should not exceed the non-oil revenue so that in recessions to compensate expenditures oil revenues can be injected by short-term accommodations. Second hypothesis where causality runs from expenditure to revenue the government first spend and then to accommodate the requ ired level of expenditure adjusts tax policy. Peacock and Wiseman (1979) argue that due to economic crises government expenditure increases and remain at the same level even when the crises is over. In other words government expenditure is driven by strong economic crises which is able to change public perception about the size of the government. Gounder, Narayan, and Prasad (2007) find compatibility with the second hypothesis that the increase in taxes for the accommodation of government spending affects on the capital investment by investors due to the fear of paying higher taxes in future. The third hypothesis is fiscal synchronization according to which expenditure and revenue decisions are independent and bilaterally cause to each other. Reflecting the traditional theories for the demand for public goods. Meltzer and Richard (1981), the demand of public expenditures and taxes need to compensate these expenditures are compared with many alternative spending programs for cost benefit analysis, therefore the practical implication of this hypothesis is bidirectional causality. Narayan and Narayan (2006) suggest three reasons regarding the importance of nexus between government revenue and expenditure first if proper implementation on policies is taken into consideration regarding government revenue fiscal deficit can be avoided, second if causality runs from expenditure to revenue outflow increases due to the fear that government spends first and pay for it later by increasing taxes. Third in case of bidirectional causality expenditure can rise faster than revenue which can create huge budget deficits because revenue and expenditure decisions are independent of each other. Baharumshah and Lau (2007) Find two sets of different results where the fiscal policy of Korea, Singapore and Thailand is driven by expenditures where the government finances revenue for the planned expenditures according to the limit of the balanced budget which facilitat e the long term sustainable budget position. However the taxation system should be implemented by taking care of the overall smooth fiscal policy. Whereas in case of Malaysia and Philippines expenditures and revenues are independent of each other and the level of government expenditures and revenues is determined through fiscal policy based on marginal cost and revenue. Furthermore the findings indicate that in order to achieve long-term economic growth fiscal consolidation is necessary to reduce deficits and debt levels which lead a country to fulfill expenditure priorities better and provide funds to more productive sectors. Griffin and McKinley (1992) believes that the expenditure policies of the government should be directed towards long-term future growth and for the well being of the people, Therefore activities that contribute more on socio economic development should be increased instead of using resources and funds to military defense projects. King and Rebelo (1990) taxation has a very important role in the long run growth process of a country where growth is not affected by indirect taxation, however direct taxation is harmful for growth. Nanthakumar and Taha (2008) found in an analysis of Malaysia that the major part of taxes is direct taxes and reducing direct and indirect taxes leads to reduce in government expenditures, In addition non-tax revenue does not contribute much in economys growth. Hondroyiannis and Papapetrou (1996) find unidirectional causality running from government expenditure to revenues in Greece where the reason of fiscal deficit from a long period of time was government spending decisions. The government spending to GDP is very high in Greece which results an operating inefficiency for the economy. Furthermore the results indicated that reducing fiscal deficit without reducing the government expenditure leads to failure. Ahiakpor and Amirkhalkhali (1989) Based on the analysis of Canada found that to show the rel evant results of fiscal policy government increase taxes which is a temporary and incomplete act in order to fully take control over fiscal deficit the government must reduce or limit its expenditures instead of finding ways to increase tax revenue burden on public. Baghestani and McNown (2004) in a study of Egypt and Jordan claim that to promote domestic savings and private investment it is necessary to eliminate budget deficit for both the counties. Baghestani supported the causality from tax revenue to expenditure in case of Egypt and bi-lateral causality in case Jordan. Furthermore promoted the process of privatization because it facilitate high domestic saving and investment and at the same time helps to reduce fiscal deficit. Neyapti (2008) studied the influence of fiscal decentralization on government revenue and expenditure and indicated that decentralization improves quality of governance which leads to decrease in budget deficit and stable economic condition. However the efficiency of fiscal decentralization increases in case of large population. Keho (2010) Study the data fo 1660 to 2005 to analyses the causal relationship between government expenditure and tax revenue to see which expenditure and revenue items plays a part in the reduction of budget deficit and found that GDP has significant effect on government expenditure. Furthermore the findings of granger causality test indicate unidirectional causality from government revenue to expenditure according to the findings the implementation for the elimination of fiscal deficit should not be made by just increasing revenues. Thus for the beneficial results spending cuts are necessary. In other words tax system should be made with proper spending control system. Brennan and Buchanan (1980) suggest that in order to reduce fiscal deficit constitutional limits should be imposed on post-constitutional government to reduce the revenue collection by latter governments so that position of maxim um financing of goods demanded by public and minimum revenue collection can be achieved. Baffes and Anwar (1990) conducted the research for the countries Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Pakistan to determine the behavior of government towards revenue and expenditures for the alignment of fiscal deficit. The results found to be positive for Mexico, Brazil and Pakistan while the similar findings havent been found for Argentina and Chile. For Brazil, Mexico and Pakistan causality runs in both ways in other words bidirectional causality where decisions for the government spending and revenue are taken simultaneously. However in case of Argentina and Chile causality runs from expenditure to revenue. The results indicates that to control budget deficit the government should increase revenue collection and restrain expenditure whereas public expenditures should be reduced in Argentina and Chile. Stoian (2008) founded in case of Romania by applying Johansen cointegration and Err or Correction model that the long run relationship between government revenue and expenditure do not affect major fiscal imbalances. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS 3.1 Method of Data Collection Data of the two variables Government Expenditure and Total Revenue is taken from secondary sources with the help of multiple sources which includes (Ministry of Finance), (State bank of Pakistan) and (Hand book of Statistics on Pakistan Economy). 3.2 Sample Size Sample of 31 observations have been used by using the data of public finance from the year 1979-2010. Where the variable (Total Tax Revenue) has been created by adding indirect-tax, direct-tax, Non-tax revenue and surcharges and (Total Expenditure) has been calculated by adding Development and Non-Development Expenditures. 3.3 Research Model Granger model is used to study the causality where TR is the total revenue and TE is total government expenditure. TRt = Ã ¢Ãâ ?1 + ÃÅ½Ã ´1 + TEt-1 + TEt-2 + ET1 TEt = Ã ¢Ãâ ?2 + ÃÅ½Ã ´2 + TRt-1 + TEt-2 + ET2 The above two equation represents the hypothesis where the causality running from total expenditure to revenue in equation one and from revenue to expenditure in equation two. The rejection of any hypothesis concludes unidirectional causality between government expenditure to revenue. However, rejection of both the hypothesis concludes bidirectional causality in other words fiscal synchronization exists between government revenue and expenditure. 3.4 Statistical Technique In this research granger causality test by Granger (1969) has been applied to study the causal relationship by comparing one time series with another (Government Expenditure with Government revenue) where one variable becomes the cause of the other variable to predict it significantly. In addition cross-correlation has been applied to assess the correlation between both time series variables. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS 4.1 Findings and Interpretation of the results Table 4.1 Pairwise Granger Causality Tests Sample: 1 32 Lags: 2 Null Hypothesis: Obs F-Statistic Prob. TOTAL_EX does not Granger Cause TOTAL_RE 30 0.84135 0.4430 TOTAL_RE does not Granger Cause TOTAL_EX 14.2132 8.E-05 Table 4.2 Pairwise Granger Causality Tests Sample: 1 32 Lags: 1 Null Hypothesis: Obs F-Statistic Prob. TOTAL_EX does not Granger Cause TOTAL_RE 31 0.20627 0.6532 TOTAL_RE does not Granger Cause TOTAL_EX 46.4229 2.E-07 The summary given in the table above shows that there is a unidirectional causality exist between total government expenditure and total revenue, as the value of F-Statistic is 3.5 when the causality runs from expenditure to revenue due to which the null hypothesis (TOTAL_EX does not Granger Cause TOTAL_RE) is accepted. However, the causality is running from revenue to expenditures as F-Statistics 3.5, Furthermore both lag 1 and lag 2 are tested to achieve better results as table 4.2 indicates therefore the null hypothesis (TOTAL_RE does not Granger Cause TOTAL_EX) is rejected. Table 4.3 Cross Correlations Series Pair:Total_Revenue with Total_Expenditure Lag Cross Correlation Std. Errora -16 -.177 .250 -15 -.143 .243 -14 -.099 .236 -13 -.056 .229 -12 -.010 .224 -11 .044 .218 -10 .097 .213 -9 .137 .209 -8 .210 .204 -7 .255 .200 -6 .299 .196 -5 .353 .192 -4 .427 .189 -3 .513 .186 -2 .663 .183 -1 .796 .180 0 .994 .177 1 .810 .180 2 .662 .183 3 .544 .186 4 .431 .189 5 .344 .192 6 .271 .196 7 .208 .200 8 .148 .204 9 .094 .209 10 .053 .213 11 .005 .218 12 -.036 .224 13 -.078 .229 14 -.114 .236 15 -.153 .243 16 -.188 .250 a. Based on the assumption that the series are not cross correlated and that one of the series is white noise. Figure 4.1 Total_Revenue with Total_Expenditure Lag Number The results of cross-correlation indicates total revenue as a leading time series variabler with a strong correlation of .994 with government expenditures at lag 0, furthermore correlation a positive correlation has been found from lag 1 to lag 11, However the correlation is decreasing and from 12 to 16 lags correlation in negative predicting that with the increase in total revenue, total government expenditure will decrease in future. 4.2 Hypotheses Assessment Summary Hypotheses F-Statistic Result Tax Revenue causes Government Expenditure. 46.4229 Accepted Government Expenditure causes Tax Revenue. 0.20627 Rejected Tax Revenue and Government Expenditure bidirectionally cause to each other. Rejected CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION, DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH 5.1 Conclusion The research studies the causal link between total government expenditure and total revenue in Pakistan using granger causality test and the supportive cross correlation from 1979-2010. The result from granger causality supports the hypothesis that tax revenue causes government expenditure in Pakistan. In addition cross correlation results have indicated long-term results that with the increase in revenue expenditures will increase. Therefore the major conclusion drawn from this research is that in order to eliminate the problem of fiscal deficit and sustainable economic growth government should focus on the policies which facilitate increasing revenue. 5.2 Discussion Various studies have analyzed the causal relationship between government expenditure and revenue. Some supported with unidirectional causality occurring from revenue to spending and from expenditure to revenue whereas some have indicated the result of bidirectional causality. However, both the variables have significant impact on budget deficit and economic growth. Fiscal deficit in Pakistan is a major issue as the findings of cross correlation indicates that the revenue and expenditures are correlated which means that as revenue increase expenditure increases and deficit remains at the same level and to compensate this deficit government increases its debt financing from domestic and foreign sources which leads towards inflation and high interest rates. 5.3 Implications and Recommendations The model and analysis of this study is very useful for economists and policy makers as it helps in enhancing revenue by tax reform programs. In addition for the determination of optimal spending expenditure reform assessment can be done through cost and benefit analysis which will help in setting objectives for tax collections and better utilization of taxes. 5.4 Future Research Future research possibilities could be as follows first variables like national income and debt financing could be included in the research. Second data sets of multiple countries would be interesting to analyze the causal relationship using the same model in comparison with this research.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Feminist Criticism of The Great Gatsby The pervasive male bias in American literature leads the reader to equate the experience of being American with the experience of being male. In F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby, the background for the experience of disillusionment and betrayal revealed in the novel is the discovery of America. Daisys failure of Gatsby is symbolic of the failure of America to live up to the expectations in the imagination of the men who discovered it. America is female; to be American is male; and the quintessential American experience is betrayal by woman. Fetterley believes that power is the issue in the politics of literature. Powerlessness characterizes womans experience of reading not only becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is she for whom men compete, and possessing her is the clearest sign that one has made it into that magical world. Gatsbys desire for Daisy is enhanced by the fact that she is the object of the desires of many other men. Daisy is the most expensive item on the mark et as Tom points out when he gives her a string of pearls valued at $350,000 on the night before they are married. She is that which money exists to buy. Having her makes Tom Buchanans house in East Egg finished and right; not having her makes Gatsbys mansion in West Egg incomplete and wrong. Daisy is viewed as a possession rather than a person. There are no emotional relations between Gatsby and Daisy to give an account of; there is only an emotional relation between Gatsby and his unutterable visions, of which she is the unwitting symbol. Not only are women treated as inanimate objects in The Great Gatsby, they are also shown as childlike and without morality, whereas it is actually the men who have these characteristics. One can see this in the way that Nick Carraway treats Daisy and Jordan. Nick conceals the fact that Daisy was the driver of the car that killed Myrtle Wilson, supposedly because of his loyalty to Gatsby. But his deceit derives not simply from his loyalty to the dead Gatsby; it is equally the product of his assumption that women, rich women in particular, are incapable of moral responsibility. He even admits to having a different standard of honesty for women than he has forShow MoreRelatedEssay about Paradoxical Role of Women in the Great Gatsby1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe women in The Great Gatsby appear to be free-spirited, scorning norms of what the nineteenth century would have considered proper female behavior; this essay investigates just how independent they really are. Women play a paradoxical role in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby, a novel dominated by the eponymous hero and the enigmatic narrator, Nick Carraway. With the background of GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s continual and lavish parties, women seem to have been transformed into Ã¢â¬Å"flappers,Ã¢â¬ supposedly the incarnationRead MoreAre Women Destructive Forces?1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesworking in the farm. In F. Scott Fitzgeralds book The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald utilized Daisy Buchanan, an ignorant, materialistic and intolerant lady, to portray the materialistic and lost era of the 1920s. When comparing the female figures in the three books, the authors depict the diminishing self-confidence and role of the ladies as the American culture advanced. These classical American works record the shifting role of a woman from when they were an able feminist to when they turned intoRead More Comparing Daisy Buchanan of The Great Gatsby and Brett of The Sun Also Rises2630 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDaisy B uchanan of The Great Gatsby and Brett Ashley of The Sun Also Rises Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Written right after the publication of FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby, HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sun Also Rises is apparently influenced in many ways.Ã The most obvious of Fitzgeralds influence is manifested in Hemingways portrayal of his heroine, Brett Ashley. Numerous critics have noted and discussed the similarities between Brett and Daisy Buchanan, and rightly so; but the two women also have fundamental differences
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Biblical Illusions in Toni Morrisons Song of Solomon Song of Solomon, by Toni Morrison, is about a man named Macon Dead. Throughout this novel, however, he is known by all except his father as Milkman because his mother breastfed him until he was in his teens. The novel centers on Milkmans attempt to find himself. His family is a wealthy black family living in a poor black neighborhood, where Milkmans father prohibits Milkman from interacting with most of them, including his aunt. However, he ends up visiting her, and while there, he learns a little about his familys mysterious past and decides to look deeper into it. Throughout his journey into his past, one may notice a large amount of biblical allusions. The first and mostÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦_Song of Solomon_ in the Bible is about love, just as it is one of the most popular themes in Morrisons novel. Love is apparent in several ways throughout the novel, from Hagars immoral, and eventually psychotic, love for her cousin, Milkman, (which eventually leads to Hagars death), to the lack of love that leads Milkmans mother to habitually breast feed him, at least daily, for years just to get a small amount of pleasure. Morrison explains this by saying, ...he was old enough to be bored by the flat taste of mothers milk.(Morrison) Another way in which Morrison infuses a biblical connection into her works is through the naming of the children in the Dead family. When describing the names of the children she writes, He had cooperated... with the blind selection of names from the Bible for every child other than the first born male. And abided by whatever the finger pointed to... This is the reason for the naming of his other two children (Milkman, or Macon, being the first born male), Magdalene from Mary Magdalene, and First Corinthians, from The Book of Corinthians. Besides the children of Macon Dead, there are other biblical allusions in the names of people. One of these is Hagar, Pilates son and Milkmans cousin. Though the biblical Hagar is not well known, her character in the Bible reflects, in some ways, the character in Morrisons novel. In the bible, Hagar is Sarahs handmaiden. When she bares the son
The concern about ownership of arms goes back to the period between the universe wars and has been a uninterrupted concern since the early 1950s. After World War II The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty ( NPT ) was negotiated. Ã¢â¬Å"The NPT prohibited extra provinces who did non hold already atomic arms from geting them and required current owners from helping in the in the spreadÃ¢â¬ ¦made them promise to cut down and extinguish their ain. Ã¢â¬ ( Snow. 2008:189 ) Throughout history. some provinces have felt the demand to possess arms for protecting themselves while others seek to demo their power. for illustration the U. S. A and the USSR during the Cold War. For decennaries. power and security have been the major issues. but through clip. the economic system has become progressively of import in the docket of provinces. The purpose of this paper is to explicate two major international dealingss theories. pragmatism and liberalism. and how these theories try to reason for the de mand and ownership of atomic arms in the modern-day epoch. We will write a custom essay sample on Realism vs. Liberalism Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Realists have four chief statements: the chief histrions. in the international system. are autonomous provinces ; the international system is in a province of lawlessness ; provinces must be concerned with their ain security ; and provinces are rational incorporate histrions. ( Viotti. 1999:188 ) Realism based its statements on the Cold War. during this clip. security and power were the most of import concerns for the provinces. chiefly for the United States and the USSR. Due to the history of this theory. it is non a surprise that some realists support the thought of the provinces possessing atomic arms to equilibrate power and protect themselves. in instance they feel threatened. The realist Kenneth Waltz. provinces that Ã¢â¬Å"we should anticipate war to go less likely when armss exist to do conquest more hard. to deter pre-emptive and preventative war. and to do coercive menace less credibleÃ¢â¬ ¦nuclear disincentive and atomic defence better the chances for peaceÃ¢â¬ ( Waltz. 2008:260 ) Therefore. from his position. proliferation of atomic arms is a affair of security. On the other manus. there is KegleyÃ¢â¬â¢s realist statement saying that Ã¢â¬Å"disarmament and weaponries control have served throughout history as vehicles to keep ( non extinguish ) the balance of powerÃ¢â¬ ¦the distribution of military might is critical to the saving of the balance of powerÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ( Kegley Jr. 1995:246 ) For him. weaponries control is path towards balance of power. and hence. peace. These two writers exemplify the chief statement of realists that weaponries. in this instance atomic arms. maintain the balance of power and as a effect peace is achieved. But even when realists province the positive impact of atomic arms. there is still the job of what states are allowed to posses. in other words. exists the job of how to command the proliferation of atomic arms. Due to the importance of commanding atomic arms. stateÃ¢â¬â¢s governments become autocratic and close. At the same clip. some possible atomic provinces are non strong and stable plenty ; hence. theses states can non be trusted on control of their arms and the determination to utilize them. ( Waltz. 2008:163 ) The fact that some provinces posses atomic arms and are non dependable bends into a failing in the realist theory because so statesÃ¢â¬â¢ security is threatened by atomic arms. alternatively of being preserved and guaranteed. In contrast there are the progressives. who assume that in the internatio nal system there are different international histrions that pursue different aims. like international establishments. At the same clip. they argue that in an lawless system. like the international. there is no higher authorization that controls other units in the system. hence. units interact as peers. ( Vinci. 2008:41 ) Taking into consideration that the international system is lawless. one could state that the balance of power and the accomplishment of peace depends an all the international histrions. non merely on the sates. Liberals besides believe that international dealingss and particularly international political economic system offer opportunities for everyone to derive at the same clip. ( Viotti. 1999:185 ) From the broad position. the competition among provinces to possess atomic arms reduces the security of single states and international instability. For progressives like Mark Zacher and Richard Matthew Ã¢â¬Å"open trading system act upon the chances for peaceable political relations Ã¢â¬ ¦once the state opens its markets to the universe. democracy follows. Ã¢â¬ ( Kegley Jr. 1995:24 8 ) Liberals strongly believe that weaponries merely generate war and that the lone manner to avoid it is by international cooperation through an unfastened economic system. Another of import broad statement is about the democratic values ; Michael Doyle has the thought that broad democracies do non contend other broad democracies. ( Nye. 2007:48 ) This happens because in a democratic state people have the pick whether to take or non to take traveling to war. and this public consent legitimizes the conflict. in instance there is one. But the intent of the broad is to avoid war via democracy. because when there is democracy there is opportunity for dialogue. which in the terminal can forestall war without the demand of weaponries. However. this broad statement about broad democracies non traveling to war with other democracies merely applies to those states who have a democratic signifier of authorities and go forth outside those who have other type of governments. which in the in the terminal have the potency to travel to war with other states. Realist and broad theories have contrasting statements ; one is based on province power. while the latter focal points on international economic system. civil society. and democracy. In the instance of the broad theory. it has the advantage that it is newer and is more consistent with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s universe. where the economic system has become critical for provinces. civil society has influence in international personal businesss. and democracy is strong in states like the US. Realists. like Waltz. believe that the ownership of atomic arms will heighten the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s security by equilibrating power. while other minds like Kegley argue that the non lone ownership. but control of atomic arms is the way towards universe peace. But what theses writers and some relists do non see is the hazard that the proliferation of atomic arms may do in instance they are used. particularly when possessed by states that are non dependable. On the other side. progressives are cognizant that atomic arms are a menace to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s peace ; they believe that cooperation among provinces and international organisations along with thoughts of broad democracy. However. they do non undertake the fact that differences arise between provinces and that the international economic system would non be able to avoid struggle in instance it emerges. During the Cold War epoch. pragmatism had a batch of followings since universe power was split between two strong states. USSR and US. During this clip. the ownership of atomic arms. to some extend. stopped these two states from get downing a Third World War. Nowadays. progressives statement about international cooperation ad democracy is possible because. even when there are stronger states than others. the international histrions like civil society and international organisation have the modules to acquire involved in international personal businesss and act upon the powers determinations. every bit good as the public sentiment has the power to act upon in their authoritiess determinations. Mentions: Cimbala. S. J. ( 2004 ) . Nuclear Proliferation and International Systems. Defense A ; Security Analysis. 20 ( 4 ) . 321-336. Consulted Agust 31st. 2011 on hypertext transfer protocol: //0-web. ebscohost. com. millenium. itesm. mx/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=b80eb504-62d4-4e2b-b115-a1214a4778af % 40sessionmgr112 A ; vid=2 A ; hid=123 Kegley Jr. C ( 1995 ) Controversies in International Relations Theory. Realism and the Neoliberal Challenge. Belmont. United states: Wadsworth Magnarella. P. J. ( 2008 ) . Attempts to Reduce and Eliminate Nuclear Weapons through the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Creation of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones. Peace A ; Change Consulted Agust 31st. 2011 on hypertext transfer protocol: //0-web. ebscohost. com. millenium. itesm. mx/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=d69fba83-877f-488e-a354-3556cb0fb85a % 40sessionmgr112 A ; vid=2 A ; hid=123 Nye. J. ( 2007 ) Understanding international Conflicts. An International to Theory and History. Sixth Edition. New York. United states: Pearson. Salmon. T. ( 2000 ) Issues in International Relations. New York. United states: Routledge. Snow. D. ( 2008 ) Cases in International Relations. Portrayals of the Future. ( 3rd ) United States: Pearson Sutch. P ; Elias. J. ( 2007 ) International Relations. The Basics. New York. United states: Routledge. Vinci. A. ( 2008 ) Armed Groups and the Balance of Power. The International dealingss of terrorist. warlords and insurrectionists. New York. United states: Routledge. Viotti. P ; Kauppi. M. ( 1999 ) International Relations Theory. Realism. Pluralism. Globalism. and Beyond. ( 3rd ) Needham Heights. United states: Allyn and Bacon. Waltz. Kenneth ( 2008 ) Realism and International Politics. New York. United states: Pearson.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Similar to the use of water, electricity and gas, the Internet will become common and expected. Smart Home Systems are also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Computer HomesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Electronic HousesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Intelligent HomesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Interactive HomesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Home InformaticsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Home TelematicsÃ¢â¬ . A smart house is a house that has highly advanced automatic systems for lighting, temperature control, multi-media, security, window and door operations, and many other functions. A smart home appears intelligent because its computer systems can monitor so many aspects of daily living.For example, the refrigerator may be able to inventory its contents, suggest menus, recommend healthy alternatives, and order groceries. The smart home systems might even take care of cleaning the cats litter box and watering the plants. The idea of a smart home may sound like something out of Hollywood. A 1999 movie titled Smart House presents the comical antics of an American family that wins a house of the future with an android maid who causes havoc. We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Houses or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Other films show a sci-fi vision of smart home technology that seems improbable. However, smart home technology is real, and its becoming increasingly sophisticated.